Idioms with nationalities and countries

Here is a list of idioms using the names of countries, with meanings and examples 

Types of machine: Vocabulary

Here are the types of machine with example sentences.

Washing machine 

=for washing clothes, sheets, etc. 
  • Did you put the dirty clothes in the washing machine? 
  • We'll send a plumber to install your washing machine. 
  • I clean my washing machine once a month. 
  • My new washing machine is more efficient than the old one. 

Adjectives: rich vs wealthy

The words rich and wealthy are actually synonyms. Both are often used when you are describing a person or place that has a lot of money and possessions. However, in some cases, only rich is possible.
  • She is a very rich/wealthy woman.
  • He was fabulously rich/wealthy.
  • This is a rich/wealthy area.

We always use rich in some fixed expressions such as stinking rich and filthy rich.
  • They must be stinking/filthy rich.
  • They must be stinking/filthy wealthy.

Adjectives used as nouns

As you know, adjectives and nouns are different parts of speech. A noun is a word that refers to a person, animal, thing, or idea, and an adjective describes a noun. For example, in the phrase 'a clever boy', 'clever' is an adjective, and 'boy' is a noun.
In English, some adjectives can function as nouns. These are adjectival nouns.

Compound adjectives

In English, some adjectives can consist of two or more words. These are compound adjectives. Compound adjectives are usually written with hyphens when they are used in front of a noun they modify. For example, in the phrase man-eating lion’, ‘man-eating’ is a compound adjective. ‘man eating lion’ means something different. As you can see, a hyphen changes the meaning of a phrase.

Close or Shut?

You can use the verbs close and shut to mean the same thing, but shut is less formal than close. Shut is an irregular verb. Its past tense and past participle forms are the same as the present tense.
  • to shut – he shuts – he shut – he has shut

Altar vs Alter

The words altar and alter often confuse students because they are homophones.These words have the same pronunciation even though they are different parts of speech. Altar (with an A) is a noun. Alter (with an E) is a verb.

Fair vs Fare

Words that are pronounced the same often confuse the learners of English. These words are homophones. Homophones sound the same but have different meanings, origins or spellings.
Fair and fare are two commonly confused words in English because they are homophones. Fair and fare are both pronounced as /feə(r)/.

Formation of adjectives

There are no rules to help you recognize adjectives by their forms. But many adjectives are formed from other words by adding prefixes or suffixes.

Order of adjectives

An adjective is a word that describes a noun. In the phrase red car, red is an adjective. Sometimes we use several adjectives to describe a noun. Example: a small, red, German car.
When we use more than one adjective before a noun, the adjectives need to be in a particular order.
Most native speakers simply do it naturally. If you want your English to sound more natural, you must use the adjectives in the proper order.