Parts of Speech
The English language has many words. Every word belongs to a particular group called "parts of speech" or "word classes". The parts of speech are important because they help us to understand the function and role of each word in a sentence. They also help us to construct clear and grammatically correct sentences.
Traditionally, there are eight parts of speech in English.
Nouns are words that refer to people, places, things, or ideas. Nouns can be concrete (such as pencil or guitar), or abstract (such as love or freedom). They can be singular (such as man or book), or plural (such as men or books). They can also be proper nouns that name specific people, places, or things and begin with a capital letter.
Pronouns are words that are used to replace nouns or noun phrases. The words "you", "he", "mine" "that" and "yourself" are all pronouns. Words like "someone", "both" and "anything" are also pronouns.
Verbs are words that express action (such as run or speak), or a state (such as exist or appear). Verbs are essential for forming sentences. An English verb can be regular or irregular. Regular verbs form their past tense and past participle by adding "-ed". For example, "want" is a regular verb, and its past tense and past participle are "wanted". Irregular verbs do not follow this pattern and have unique forms for their past tense and past participle. For example, "write" is an irregular verb and its past tense is "wrote" and its past participle is "written".
Adjectives are words that describe nouns and give extra information about them. Adjectives usually come right before nouns. And adjectives sometimes come after verbs. For example in the phrase " a big house", "big" is an adjective, and in the sentence, "They seem happy", "happy" is an adjective.
Adverbs are words that describe or give extra information about verbs. They may also describe other adverbs. Many adverbs are formed by adding the suffix "-ly" to an adjective. For example, "quickly" is formed from the adjective "quick", and "slowly" is formed from the adjective "slow". But not all adverbs end in "-ly". The words such as "only", "often", "very", "never", and "soon" are also adverbs.
Prepositions are words that come before nouns or pronouns to show place, direction, time, or method. The most common prepositions in English are "in", "on", "at", "of", "for", "with", "to", "from", "by", "about", "after", and "before". In the sentence "We are meeting in the park at noon", the preposition "in" shows place and the preposition "at" shows time.
Conjunctions are words that connect words, phrases, and clauses. There are two types of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses that are the same type. The main coordinating conjunctions are "and", "or", and "but". Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect a dependent clause to an independent clause. For example in the sentence "I can't go to the party tonight because I have to study for my exam", "because" is a subordinating conjunction.
Interjections are words or phrases that are used to express emotions or sudden reactions. They are more common in speaking than in writing. Interjections are not grammatically connected to any word in the sentence. "Oh!", "wow!" and "ouch!" are interjections.
Same word; different jobs
Many words in English can belong to more than one part of speech. For example, "work" can be a verb (e.g. "Both my parents work), and a noun (e.g. "I'm still looking for work"). In addition, words can also have multiple meanings within a single part of speech. For example "bank" can refer to an organization that provides various financial services, or it can refer to the edge of a river o lake.