This, that, these and those

Demonstratives: this that these those

This, that, these and those are demonstrative pronouns. We use them to point to specific people or things. Demonstrative pronouns are used in place of a noun. We can use same words as demonstrative adjectives. Demonstrative adjectives are used before a noun.



Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative Adjectives
Near
Singular
This is very expensive. 
This car is very expensive. 
Plural
These are my shoes. 
These books are mine.  
Far
Singular
That is gold.  
What's that yellow stuff? 
Plural
Can you bring me those? 
How much are those shoes? 


This and that are used with singular nouns. 

This and these  

This is used to refer to a person or thing that is  near the speaker. These is the plural form of this. 
  • This is very good news. 
  • This is my favourite book. 
  • This carpet is very old. 
  • Where did you get these shoes from? 
We use this to introduce someone to someone else. 
  • Hello. This is Anna (on the telephone).
  • This is your captain speaking. 
We use this when we talk about the present time. 
  • I met her this morning (=today in the morning). 
  • I'll do it this minute (=now). 

That and those 

That is used for referring to a person or thing that is distant from the speaker. Those is the plural form  of that. 
  • That sounds quite lovely. 
  • I think that is my bag. 
  • Those are comfortable shoes. 
  • Look at those men over there. 
  • Those plants have small yellow flowers. 
We use that to refer back to something that is already known about. 
  • Why did you do that? 
  • That incident sticks in my mind. 
  • We weren’t married at that time. 

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